Procedures for Toilet Training

EBIP_toilet training_11

What are procedures for potty training?

Procedures for potty training include the practices with the most research support, particularly for difficult-to-train children (such as children with disabilities). These practices range from relatively low-effort to very high-effort.

When should I use potty EBIP_toilet training_3training procedures?

  • Potty training procedures can be conducted in schools, homes, or other locations with accessible toileting facilities. Intensive toilet training has primarily been conducted by researchers and requires extended one-to-one support.
  • Research on potty training procedures have primarily been conducted by researchers, in home and clinic environments.

What are the potty training procedures most relevant to early childhood settings?

Where can I find additional information regarding toilet training?

  • EBIP_toilet training_7Healthy Children (American Academy of Pediatrics)
  • Autism Treatment Network
  • TEACCH Autism Program
  • Cicero, F. R., & Pfadt, A. (2002). Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet training procedure for children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23(5), 319-331.
  • Cocchiola, M. A., Jr., Martino, G. M., Dwyer, L. J., & Demezzo, K. (2012). Toilet training children with autism and developmental delays: An effective program for school settings. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 60-64.
  • Kroeger, A. K., & Sorensen-Burnworth, R. (2009). Toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities: A critical review Elsevier. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800.
  • LeBlanc, L. A., Carr, J. E., Crossett, S. E., Bennett, C. M., & Detweiler, D. D. (2005). Intensive outpatient behavioral treatment of primary urinary incontinence of children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 98-105.
  • Polaha J, Warzak W.J., Dittmer-Mcmahon K. (2002). Toilet training in primary care: current practice and recommendations from behavioral pediatrics. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 23 (424–429)
  • Post, A. R., & Kirkpatrick, M. A. (2004). Toilet training for a young boy with pervasive developmental disorder. Behavioral Interventions, 19(1), 45-50.
  • Rinald, K., & Mirenda, P. (2012). Effectiveness of a modified rapid toilet training workshop for parents of children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(3), 933-943.

To cite this page (APA 6th edition):

  • Ledford, J.R. (2016). Procedures for toilet training. In Evidence-based instructional practices for young children with autism and other disabilities. Retrieved from